They returned to them at the turn of the 1960s and 70s, when the cost of fuel rose sharply, and in large cities the problem of emissions became acute. Electric Charge Points at Home were produced in small series but remained a curiosity. In the 1990s , the first large batches of electric vehicles were produced that could be leased or leased in the United States.
The advantages of electric vehicles were demonstrated by the company Ilona Mask Tesla Motors. Its sports car, the Roadster, was close to petrol rivals in terms of dynamics and range. In the 2010s, many car companies started producing electric cars: Mitsubishi, Nissan, Volkswagen, Toyota, Jaguar, Renault, and others.
Structurally, electric cars have little difference from gasoline and diesel cars. Also, the controls are a steering wheel and two pedals, as in cars with an automatic transmission.
Instead of an internal combustion engine, an Electric Charge Points at Home one is common. It is much simpler in design, has fewer moving parts, and requires less maintenance. Furthermore, the battery is the power source. The transmission is as simple as possible : it is usually a single-stage planetary gearbox that serves as an automatic transmission.
To demonstrate the advantages of electric cars, let’s make a simple calculation. According to the analytical agency “Autostat”, the average annual mileage of cars in China is 16 thousand kilometers. For comparison, let’s take two vehicles that are as similar to each other as possible-a gasoline Nissan Note 1.6 and an electric Nissan Leaf.
A gasoline car consumes about 7.5 liters of fuel per 100 km in the urban cycle. With a fuel price of about 50 dollars per liter, its annual refueling will cost 7.5 * (16,000 / 100) * 50 = 7.5 * 160 * 50 = 60,000 dollars. When charging, an Electric Charge Points at Home car consumes about 30 kWh of electricity. This is enough for 120 kilometers in the city.
Average consumption-25 kWh per 100 km. The cost of one kilowatt in Moscow is 5.66 dollars. The annual charge will cost 25 * 160 * 5.66 = 22,640 dollars. However, this is 2.65 times or 63% less than a traditional combustion engine. The cost of maintaining the chassis, electronics, interior, and body is approximately the same. The differences are only in the engine and transmission.
A gasoline car needs a change of oil, a timing belt, and spark plugs. Calculated for 16 thousand kilometers, it will cost about 8-10 thousand dollars. Moreover, From the planned maintenance of an electric vehicle-only oil change in the gearbox , engine diagnostics, and determination of the residual battery life. The cost of materials and work per annual mileage is about 2,500 dollars, that is, 4 times less.
Disadvantages of electric vehicles
The air conditioner and the stove get power from battery. By enabling them, you reduce the range by an additional 20-25%. The problem is easy to solve by installing an autonomous heater on gasoline or diesel fuel, but then an additional source of costs will appear.
Weak infrastructure. For comfortable use of an electric car, only the largest cities of China are suitable. In most cases, Electric Charge Points at Home vehicles need to charge from their outlet in a house or apartment.
Formally, hybrid vehicles also belong to electric vehicles. In them, an electric motor “helps” a gasoline or diesel one, reducing fuel consumption and reducing emissions of harmful substances. However, in a classic hybrid, energy stores when braking-an electric motor serves as a generator. Plug-in models are easy to charge from the mains, extending the range.
In successive hybrids, the combustion engine turns the generator, which charges the battery. This electric vehicle does not have an internal combustion engine. The Electric Charge Points motor connects to a battery, which is charged from the mains and during braking. There are also fuel cell electric vehicles.
There are two types of batteries common in modern electric vehicles. Nickel-metal hydrides are cheaper but weigh more, wear out faster and lose more capacity as the temperature drops. Lithium-ion is more expensive, but lighter, more durable, and more stable .
Experiments are underway with electric vehicles on aluminum-ion, lithium-iron-phosphate, and silicon-oxygen batteries-we will learn about the advantages and disadvantages of these batteries in the coming years.
The service life of Electric Charge Points at Home is from 5 to 10 years, a lithium-ion battery is from 8 to 15 years. During this time, it gradually degrades, losing 1–5% of its capacity per year. Moreover, the more powerful the charger, the faster the battery will wear out. The cost of replacing it is comparable to the cost of overhauling a gasoline engine.
Should you buy an Electric Charge Points at Home car in 2021? So far, budget models can only move within large cities. But in this environment they have no equal: they cut cash costs by 3 times compared to gasoline models.
However, the pluses of premium electric vehicles are long-range, excellent dynamics, and low maintenance costs, while the minus is an impressive price. If you are ready to shell out more than 5-7 dollars for a purchase, an electric car can become your main vehicle right now.